Schools that experience rapid demographic shifts can meet the challenge by implementing five phases of professional development.
Many school districts nationwide are experiencing rapid growth in the number of students of color, culturally and linguistically diverse students, and students from low-income families. From my work with education leaders in some of these diversity-enhanced school districts, I know they are places of vibrant opportunity—places that call us to meaningful and exciting work. In these “welcome-to-America” schools, the global community shows up in our classrooms every day, inviting us—even requiring us—to grow as we learn from and with our students and their families.
The Need for Growth
All is not well, however, in these rapidly transitioning schools. Some teachers, administrators, and parents view their schools’ increasing diversity as a problem rather than an opportunity. For example, in a school district on the West Coast where the number of Latino students has quadrupled in the past 10 years, a teacher recently asked me, “Why are they sending these kids to our school?” In another district outside New York City—where the student population was once predominantly rich, white, and Jewish but is now about 90 percent low-income kids of color, mostly from the Caribbean and Latin America—a principal remarked in one workshop, “These kids don’t value education, and their parents aren’t helping either. They don’t seem to care about their children’s future.” In a school district near Minneapolis with a rapidly increasing black population, a white parent remarked, “Students who are coming here now don’t have much respect for authority. That’s why we have so many discipline problems.”
Other educators and parents, although less negative, still feel uneasy about their schools’ new demographics. In a high school outside Washington, D.C., where the Latino immigrant population is increasing rapidly, a teacher told me that he was disappointed in himself for not feeling comfortable engaging his students in a discussion of immigration issues, a hot topic in the community in spring 2006. “I knew the kids needed to talk, but I just couldn’t go there.” And a black teacher who taught French successfully for many years in predominantly white suburban schools told me recently, “When I first found myself teaching classes of mostly black kids, I went home frustrated every night because I knew I wasn’t getting through to them, and they were giving me a hard time. It only started getting better when I finally figured out that I had to reexamine everything I was doing.”
This teacher has it right. As educators in rapidly transitioning schools, we need to reexamine everything we’re doing. Continuing with business as usual will mean failure or mediocrity for too many of our students, as the data related to racial, cultural, linguistic, and economic achievement gaps demonstrate (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005). Rapidly changing demographics demand that we engage in a vigorous, ongoing, and systemic process of professional development to prepare all educators in the school to function effectively in a highly diverse environment.
Many education leaders in diversity-enhanced schools are moving beyond blame and befuddlement and working to transform themselves and their schools to serve all their students well. From observing and collaborating with them, I have learned that this transformative work proceeds best in five phases: (1) building trust, (2) engaging personal culture, (3) confronting issues of social dominance and social justice, (4) transforming instructional practices, and (5) engaging the entire school community.
Phase 1: Building Trust
Ninety percent of U.S. public school teachers are white; most grew up and attended school in middle-class, English-speaking, predominantly white communities and received their teacher preparation in predominantly white colleges and universities (Gay, Dingus, & Jackson, 2003). Thus, many white educators simply have not acquired the experiential and education background that would prepare them for the growing diversity of their students (Ladson-Billings, 2002; Vavrus, 2002).
The first priority in the trust phase is to acknowledge this challenge in a positive, inclusive, and honest way. School leaders should base initial discussions on the following assumptions:
- Inequities in diverse schools are not, for the most part, a function of intentional discrimination.
- Educators of all racial and cultural groups need to develop new competencies and pedagogies to successfully engage our changing populations.
- White teachers have their own cultural connections and unique personal narratives that are legitimate aspects of the overall mix of school diversity.
School leaders should also model for their colleagues inclusive and nonjudgmental discussion, reflection, and engagement strategies that teachers can use to establish positive learning communities in their classrooms.
For example, school leaders in the Apple Valley Unified School District in Southern California, where racial, cultural, and linguistic diversity is rapidly increasing, have invested considerable time and resources in creating a climate of openness and trust. They recently implemented four days of intensive work with teams from each school, including principals, teacher leaders, union representatives, parents, clergy, business leaders, and community activists from the NAACP and other organizations.
One essential outcome in this initial phase of the conversation is to establish that racial, cultural, and economic differences are real—and that they make a difference in education outcomes. Said one Apple Valley participant, “I have become aware that the issue of race needs to be dealt with, not minimized.” Said another, “I need to move beyond being color-blind.” A second key outcome is to establish the need for a personal and professional journey toward greater awareness. As an Apple Valley educator noted, “There were a lot of different stories and viewpoints shared at this inservice, but the one thing we can agree on is that everyone needs to improve in certain areas.” A third key outcome in the trust phase is to demonstrate that difficult topics can be discussed in an environment that is honest, safe, and productive. One Apple Valley teacher commented, “We were able to talk about all of the issues and not worry about being politically correct.”
Through this work, Apple Valley educators and community leaders established a climate of constructive collaboration that can be directed toward addressing the district’s new challenges. From the perspective of the school superintendent, “This is a conversation our community is not used to having, so we had to build a positive climate before moving to the harder questions of action.”
Phase 2: Engaging Personal Culture
Change has to start with educators before it can realistically begin to take place with students. The central aim of the second phase of the work is building educators’ cultural competence—their ability to form authentic and effective relationships across differences.
Young people, particularly those from historically marginalized groups, have sensitive antennae for authenticity. I recently asked a group of racially and culturally diverse high school students to name the teachers in their school who really cared about them, respected them, and enjoyed getting to know them as people. Forty students pooling their answers could name only 10 teachers from a faculty of 120, which may be one reason this high school has a 50 percent dropout rate for students of color.
Aronson and Steele’s (2005) work on stereotype threat demonstrates that intellectual performance, rather than being a fixed and constant quality, is quite fragile and can vary greatly depending on the social and interpersonal context of learning. In repeated studies, these researchers found that three factors have a major effect on students’ motivation and performance: their feelings of belonging, their trust in the people around them, and their belief that teachers value their intellectual competence. This research suggests that the capacity of adults in the school to form trusting relationships with and supportive learning environments for their students can greatly influence achievement outcomes.
Leaders in the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, outside Indianapolis, have taken this perspective seriously. Clear data showed gaps among ethnic groups in achievement, participation in higher-level courses, discipline referrals, and dropout rates. In response, district teachers and administrators engaged in a vigorous and ongoing process of self-examination and personal growth related to cultural competence.
Central-office and building administrators started with themselves. Along with selected teachers from each school, they engaged in a multiyear program of shared reading, reflective conversations, professional development activities, and joint planning to increase their own and their colleagues’ levels of cultural competence. They studied and practiced Margaret Wheatley’s (2002) principles of conversation, with particular emphasis on her admonitions to expect things to be messy and to be willing to be disturbed. They designed their own Socratic seminars using chapters from We Can’t Teach What We Don’t Know (Howard, 2006) and used the stages of personal identity development model from that book as a foundation for ongoing reflective conversations about their own journeys toward cultural competence.
As this work among leaders began to be applied in various school buildings, one principal observed, “We are talking about things that we were afraid to talk about before—like our own prejudices and the biases in some of our curriculum materials.” In another school, educators’ discussions led to a decision to move parent-teacher conferences out of the school building and into the apartment complexes where their black and Latino students live.
Phase 3: Confronting Social Dominance and Social Justice
When we look at school outcome data, the history of racism, classism, and exclusion in the United States stares us in the face. Systems of privilege and preference often create enclaves of exclusivity in schools, in which certain demographic groups are served well while others languish in failure or mediocrity. As diversity grows in rapidly transitioning school districts, demographic gaps become increasingly apparent.
In phase three, educators directly confront the current and historical inequities that affect education. The central purpose of this phase is to construct a compelling narrative of social justice that will inform, inspire, and sustain educators in their work, without falling into the rhetoric of shame and blame. School leaders and teachers engage in a lively conversation about race, class, gender, sexual orientation, immigration, and other dimensions of diversity and social dominance. David Koyama, principal of a diversity-enhanced elementary school outside Seattle, said, “One of my most important functions as a school leader is to transform political jargon like ‘no child left behind’ into a moral imperative that inspires teachers to work toward justice, not mere compliance.”
Unraveling social dominance takes courage—the kind of courage shown by the central office and school leadership team in the Roseville Area School District outside the twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. Roseville is in the midst of a rapid demographic shift. As we approached this phase of the work, I asked Roseville leaders to examine how issues of privilege, power, and dominance might be functioning in their schools to shape educators’ assumptions and beliefs about students and create inequitable outcomes.
One of the workshop activities engaged participants in a forced-choice simulation requiring them to choose which aspects of their identity they would give up or deny for the sake of personal survival in a hostile environment. Choosing from such identities as race, ethnicity, language, religion, values, and vocation, many white educators were quick to give up race. Among the Roseville administrative team, which is 95 percent white, the one white principal who chose to keep his racial identity during the simulation said during the debriefing discussion, “I seriously challenge my white colleagues who so easily gave up their race. I think if we are honest with ourselves, few would choose to lose the privilege and power that come with being white in the United States.”
As an outgrowth of the authentic and sometimes contentious conversations that emerged from this and other activities, several core leaders and the superintendent identified a need to craft a strong Equity Vision statement for the district. The Equity Vision now headlines all opening-of-school events each year and is publicly displayed in district offices and schools. It reads,
Roseville Area Schools is committed to ensuring an equitable and respectful educational experience for every student, family, and staff member, regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, ability, home or first language, religion, national origin, or age.
As a result of the increased consciousness about issues of dominance and social justice, several schools have formed Equity Teams of teachers and students, and an Equity Parent Group has begun to meet. The district is looking seriously at how many students from dominant and subordinate groups are in its gifted and AP classes and is conscientiously working for more balance.
Like Roseville, other diversity-enhanced districts must establish clear public markers that unambiguously state, “This is who we are, this is what we believe, and this is what we will do.” Any approach to school reform that does not honestly engage issues of power, privilege, and social dominance is naïve, ungrounded in history, and unlikely to yield the deep changes needed to make schools more inclusive and equitable.
Phase 4: Transforming Instructional Practices
In this phase, schools assess and, where necessary, transform the way they carry out instruction to become more responsive to diversity. For teachers, this means examining pedagogy and curriculum, as well as expectations and interaction patterns with students. It means looking honestly at outcome data and creating new strategies designed to serve the students whom current instruction is not reaching. For school leaders, this often means facing the limits of their own knowledge and skills and becoming colearners with teachers to find ways to transform classroom practices.
In Loudoun County Public Schools, outside Washington, D.C., teachers and school leaders are taking this work seriously. One of the fastest-growing school systems in the United States, Loudoun County is experiencing rapid increases in racial, cultural, linguistic, and economic diversity on its eastern edge, closer to the city, while remaining more monocultural to the west. Six of Loudoun’s most diverse schools have formed leadership teams to promote the following essential elements of culturally responsive teaching (CRT):
- Forming authentic and caring relationships with students.
- Using curriculum that honors each student’s culture and life experience.
- Shifting instructional strategies to meet the diverse learning needs of students.
- Communicating respect for each student’s intelligence.
- Holding consistent and high expectations for all learners. (Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994; McKinley, 2005; Shade, Kelly, & Oberg, 1997)
CRT teams vary in size and membership but usually include principals, assistant principals, counselors, lead teachers, specialists, and, in some cases, parents. In addition to engaging deeply in the phases outlined above, these teams have begun to work with their broader school faculties to transform instruction. At Loudoun County’s Sugarland Elementary, teacher members of the CRT team have designed student-based action research projects. They selected individual students from their most academically challenged demographic groups and then used the principles of CRT to plan new interventions to engage these students and track their progress.
In one action research project, a 5th grade teacher focused on a Latino student, an English language learner who “couldn’t put two sentences together, let alone write the five-paragraph essay that is required to pass our 5th grade assessment.” The teacher’s first reaction was to ask, “How was this student allowed to slip by all these years without learning anything beyond 2nd grade writing skills?” When the teacher launched her CRT project, however, her perspective became more proactive. She realized that she couldn’t just deliver the 5th grade curriculum—she had to meet this student where he was. She built a personal connection with the student, learned about his family culture and interests (a fascination with monkeys was a major access point), and used this relationship to reinforce his academic development. The student responded to her high expectations and passed his 5th grade writing assessment. And after missing its No Child Left Behind compliance goals in past years, Sugarland recently achieved adequate yearly progress for all subgroups in its highly diverse student population.
This phase requires a crucial paradigm shift, in which teachers and other school professionals stop blaming students and their families for gaps in academic achievement. Instead of pointing fingers, educators in Loudoun schools are placing their energies where they will have the most impact—in changing their own attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and practices. I frequently ask teachers and school leaders, “Of all the many factors that determine school success for our students, where can we as educators have the most influence?” After educators participate in the work outlined here, the answer is always, “Changing ourselves.”
Phase 5: Engaging the Entire School Community
Changing demographics have profound implications for all levels and functions of the school system. To create welcoming and equitable learning environments for diverse students and their families, school leaders must engage the entire school community.
Leaders in the East Ramapo Central School District in New York State have committed themselves to just such a systemwide initiative. The school district, which lies across the Tappan Zee Bridge from New York City, has experienced a dramatic shift in student population in the past 15 years as low-income Haitian, Jamaican, Dominican, Latino, and black families from the city have moved into the community and middle-class white families have, unfortunately but predictably, fled to private schools or other less diverse districts.
In the midst of this demographic revolution, East Ramapo’s broad-based diversity initiative has engaged all groups and constituencies in the school district community, not just teachers and administrators. For example, the district has provided workshops to help classified employees acknowledge their powerful role in setting a welcoming tone and creating an inclusive climate for students, parents, and colleagues in school offices, lunchrooms, hallways, and on the playground. For bus drivers, this work has meant gaining cultural competence skills for managing their immense safety responsibilities while communicating clearly and compassionately across many languages and cultures on their buses.
In one session that I led with school secretaries, we worked through their confusion and frustration related to all the diverse languages being spoken in the school offices and, in some cases, their feelings of anger and resentment about the demographic changes that had taken place in “their” schools. Asked what they learned from the session, participants commented, “I saw the frustration people can have, especially if they are from another country.” “We all basically have the same feelings about family, pride in our culture, and the importance of getting along.” “I learned from white people that they can also sometimes feel like a minority.”
In addition to these sessions, East Ramapo has created learning opportunities for school board members, parents, students, counselors, and special education classroom assistants. The district has convened regular community forums focusing on student achievement and creating conversations across many diverse cultures. White parents who have kept their children in the public schools because they see the value of diversity in their education have been significant participants in these conversations.
As a result of East Ramapo’s efforts, the achievement gaps in test scores along ethnic and economic lines have significantly narrowed. In the six years since the district consciously began implementing the professional development model discussed here, the pass rate for black and Hispanic students combined on the New York State elementary language arts test increased from 43 percent in 2000 to 54 percent in 2006; on the math test, the pass rate increased from 40 percent to 61 percent. During that same period, the gap between black and Hispanic students (combined) and white and Asian students (combined) decreased by 6 percentage points in language arts and 23 percentage points in math. The achievement gap between low-income elementary students and the general population decreased by 10 points in language arts and 6 points in math—results that are particularly impressive, given that the proportion of economically disadvantaged students grew from 51 percent in 2000 to 72 percent in 2006.
A Journey Toward Awareness
Professional development for creating inclusive, equitable, and excellent schools is a long-term process. The school districts described here are at various stages in the process. Everyone involved would agree that the work is messier and more complex than can be communicated in this brief overview. However, one central leadership commitment is clear in all of these rapidly transitioning districts: When diversity comes to town, we are all challenged to grow.
Aronson, J., & Steele, C. M. (2005). Stereotypes and the fragility of human competence, motivation, and self-concept. In C. Dweck & E. Elliot (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 436–456). New York: Guilford.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
Gay, G., Dingus, J. E., & Jackson, C. W. (2003, July). The presence and performance of teachers of color in the profession. Unpublished report prepared for the National Collaborative on Diversity in the Teaching Force, Washington, DC.
Howard, G. (2006). We can’t teach what we don’t know: White teachers in multiracial schools (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2002). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
McKinley, J. H. (2005, March). Culturally responsive teaching and learning. Paper presented at the Annual State Conference of the Washington Alliance of Black School Educators, Bellevue, WA.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). The nation’s report card.Washington, DC: Author.
Shade, B. J., Kelly, C., & Oberg, M. (1997). Creating culturally responsive classrooms. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers: Theory, research and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
Wheatley, M. (2002). Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope to the future. San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler.
Gary R. Howard is Founder and President of the REACH Center for Multicultural Education in Seattle (www.reachctr.org); 206-634-2073; firstname.lastname@example.org. He is the author of We Can’t Teach What We Don’t Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools (Teachers College Press, 2nd ed., 2006).